Tag Archives: Outbound Articles

Outbound Telemarketing Systems

By Peter Lyle DeHaan, PhD

Author Peter Lyle DeHaan

The majority of Connections Magazine readers are involved with businesses that focus, either exclusively or primarily, on incoming calls. To someone who specializes in processing reactive, inbound calls, the thought of being proactive and placing outbound calls can be both frightening and mysterious. Although both inbound and outbound calling make use of agents who use the telephone, there are seemingly few similarities beyond that. For this reason, the majority of teleservice companies handle either inbound calls or outbound calls. Even those companies that do both often segregate these functions into two separate call centers. The key reason for this is that these functions have different requirements for staffing, compensation, and management.

Employees: Staffing for outbound centers is much different than for inbound. As mentioned, inbound work is reactive. The line rings and the agent reacts and answers the call, seeking to assist the caller. These callers, by the way, placed the call of their own volition, wanting to talk to someone or looking for information. The agent takes on the role of facilitator, seeking to help and assist the caller. When agents are properly trained, equipped, and empowered, they are able to addresses the callers’ needs and both parties end the call with a sense of satisfaction.

Contrast this to the outbound scenario.  Here agents must be proactive, taking the initiative. They call someone who is likely not expecting the call, and all too often is not interested in the reason for the call, or even in receiving such calls in the first place. The agent must be able to quickly and effectively communicate a compelling reason for the call to continue. Frequently, despite the agents’ best efforts and regardless of their level of training, the call ends prematurely. The agents must deal with this rejection and then quickly and effectively proceed to the next call. Outbound calling is essentially a numbers game, with hundreds of calls made to uncover a handful of prospects in order to close a couple of sales. It takes quite a different personality to successfully work in an outbound environment compared with an inbound call center.

The hiring and screening process is likewise dissimilar. The personality and character traits that make one ideally suited for inbound work would cause that same person to flounder doing outbound, and visa versa. Yes, there are some who can effectively perform either function, but even so, they are likely better suited to, and will probably be happier doing, one versus the other.

Compensation: Remuneration plans and motivation tactics also differ. The perspective of inbound agents lends itself to providing a predictable, fixed hourly rate. The agents want, need, and expect to receive a consistent and predetermined paycheck each pay period. Bonuses and incentives do little to motivate most inbound staff or to shape their behavior. Outbound reps, however, are greatly motivated to produce, resulting from incentives in the form of commissions, bonuses, or some other pay-for-performance plan. The desire to sell, thereby maximizing their compensation, is what motivates them to push rejection aside and go on to that next call; after all, it could be a sale!

Management: Just as inbound and outbound reps tend to have contrasting personalities and motivations, their supervisors and managers must be similarly focused, using differing management styles and employing differing control techniques. Scheduling also varies. Inbound agents are scheduled based on traffic patterns and projections from historical data. If the call traffic forecast is correct, one absence can have a huge effect on workload and service level, causing staff to work harder and callers to wait longer. Outbound agents are scheduled as dictated by the needs of the campaign. A certain number of agents are scheduled for so many hours or days. If one agent doesn’t show up, it is not as critical, since those calls can always be made later (as long as the client’s completion date is met).

Types of outbound: Within the outbound world, there are two main types of calling: business-to-business (b-to-b) and business to consumer (b-to-c). B-to-b calling focuses on selling to or targeting businesses, whereas b-to-c calling addresses the consumer market. (These are the annoying calls we get during dinner or at other inopportune times.)  Just as distinctions exist between inbound and outbound, differences, though less pronounced, also are present with b-to-b and b-to-c. Hours of operation are a key divergence, with b-to-b being done weekdays, during business hours. These hours of operation are generally ineffective when trying to reach consumers, as they are often at work. Therefore, consumer calling is generally done during evenings and weekends. When calling businesses, the first goal is to get past the gatekeeper to reach the decision maker. This involves either befriending or essentially tricking the receptionist. In consumer calling, the gatekeeper is often the decision maker as well. Therefore, agents must get past the gatekeeper persona without alienating the decision maker. Here, the first few seconds of the call are critical to success (see the section on scripting for more information).

Technology: Just as agents are generally better suited to either inbound or outbound work, equipment and software are similarly focused. Although it is feasible to use an inbound messaging or order-taking system to do outbound calling, or conversely, to use an outbound system to process orders, the result is often less than ideal. This is not to imply that such systems cannot effectively do both, however these fully integrated platforms will make use of different software modules and perhaps hardware to effectively accomplish the desired task.

To consider the requisite technology for outbound work, the options for placing calls must first be considered. Often there is a corresponding trade off between price and effectiveness. Bill Cortus, marketing manager at Alston Tascom, identifies six modes of outbound telemarketing: predictive, progressive, preview, database, speed dial, and manual. All outbound systems and calling methodologies fall into one of these categories. Note that most outbound systems can be programmed to perform at various levels, although there may be some cost considerations to doing so.

  • Predictive dialing: The system “predicts” when an agent will complete a call and begins dialing the next number in anticipation of the agent becoming available. The intent is that an agent will be ready at the exact moment that someone answers the line. The risk is that no agent is ready, in which case the called party hears silence, is treated to a recording, or is automatically disconnected. To reduce the possibility of this occurring the dialing parameters are fine-tuned, but this has the side effect of reducing agent productivity. Predictive dialers are now outlawed in California; other states are expected to follow.
  • Progressive dialing: The agents’ screens display the outbound account information and script when they disconnect from the previous call; the system initiates that call immediately. Although this is not as efficient as predictive dialing, it avoids the problems of predictive dialers, while also providing agents a brief pause between calls. As such, it is less stressful on the reps.
  • Preview dialing: The agents’ screens display the outbound account information and script when they disconnect from the precious call. The agent previews the information (such as practicing how to say the person’s name or reviewing past contacts). The agent initiates dialing when ready to make the call.
  • Database: The agent opens a database, selects the next record from it, and initiates the outbound dialing sequence.
  • Speed dial: The agent is offered a series of pre-determined speed dial numbers and selects the appropriate choice (or the system presents a recommended choice). The agent initiates the outbound dialing sequence.
  • Manual dialing: In this mode, the agent works from a printed list of phone numbers and manually dials each prospect.

The above list of types of outbound methodologies is ranked from the greatest agent efficiency and system sophistication to the least.

Blended call centers: While many call centers segregate inbound and outbound calling, it’s also true that most agents can only effectively handle inbound or outbound calls. Even so, some call centers not only intermingle inbound and outbound work, but they also have at least some reps trained to do both. This is called using blended agents, ones who can dynamically switch between inbound and outbound activity.

Most fully integrated inbound and outbound systems allow for the blended agent concept, which provides both outbound dialing modes and the ability for the agent to process inbound calls. According to Bill Cortus, “When an agent is free (that is, with no inbound calls assigned), the agent is given an outbound call. After the outbound call is finished, the agent is released from the outbound cycle,” and can then be assigned an inbound call. This allows outbound calls to be made between inbound calls. Although doing so makes agents more efficient, it is difficult for most reps to quickly switch between an inbound mindset and an outbound perspective. Therefore, most inbound/outbound centers that use agent blending will assign a block of time for an agent to handle one type of call or the other. This allows for greater continuity, while still increasing worker productivity.

Scripting: Aside from personnel issues and equipment considerations, a critical aspect of a successful outbound campaign is the script. Sometimes this is a word-for-word passage that must be read verbatim. Other times a script is merely an outline or a call process flowchart. Although personnel are key and equipment important, the success or failure of an outbound campaign often hinges on the script. This is an area that cannot be overlooked, downplayed, or minimized.

Guidelines and ideas for scripting are included in two supplemental pieces. First, Susan Best of Best and Associates, which specializes in call centers, offers instruction in the sidebar entitled, “Scripting For Outbound Telemarketing.” This is followed by another related sidebar, “Ensure Success with Effective Outbound Script Writing,” by Wayne Scaggs, president of Alston Tascom.

During the call: For some outbound campaigns, the process is straightforward, requiring that agents merely follow a predetermined, linear script. This can be displayed on screen or can exist in paper form. Most calls, however, are more complex, requiring conditional branching or decision-making processes. These can usually be handled within the outbound system itself, which guides the agent through the call, while allowing data to be verified or information to be gathered. Sometimes ancillary systems are needed to document the call or obtain information. This could be a separate database, a specialized program, or an Internet-based program or data repository.

Outbound call centers that prospect for new business on behalf of clients can schedule service appointments or sales visits using Web-based appointment scheduling software. “Web-based appointment scheduling,” said Ken Coleman, executive vice president of TimeTrade, “represents a significant new business opportunity for outbound call centers, allowing them to target companies whose business is appointment-intensive or reservations-driven.” The result is an increase in revenue and an improvement in resource utilization. By using Web-based scheduling software, both the call center and client can simultaneously work off the same schedule, using the same resources, without the risk of overlapping or double booking. “This represents a large, untapped market,” Coleman added.

Vendors: Several vendors in the teleservices industry offer products for outbound telemarketing. Although many other fine vendors exist, their offerings are generally intended for in-house operations and may not be conducive to multi-client, multi-campaign environments found in outsourced call centers. Here is a selection of vendors offering outbound telemarketing products to the teleservices industry:

Alston Tascom: The Alston Tascom Evolution Outbound Dialer is a programmable dialer that allows for multiple configurations and dialing patterns. It is designed to complement both the contact center and the telemessaging industry’s needs. It offers blending of inbound and outbound calls and supports five of the six types of outbound calling, with the exception of predictive dialing. Bill Cortus, marketing manager, said the Alston Tascom Evolution System “is an end-to-end contact center solution offering a powerful outbound dialing capability optimized for (teleservice companies.”

“All Evolution dialing features operate on the basis that one or more dialing queues (or lists) have been created,” Cortus explained. There is no limit to the number of dialing queues that can be set up. Evolution is then responsible for taking numbers out of the dialing queues and presenting them to appropriate agents. The system automatically detects hang-ups and busy signals, taking the appropriate predetermined action. If the call is completed but the prospect is unavailable, the agent may reschedule the call.

Evolution features do-not-call lists and incorporates the local time zone of each called party into its dialing scheme. The main features of the Alston Tascom Evolution outbound system are:

  • Access external dialing databases
  • Integrates with IVR applications
  • Blended agents
  • Uses same interface as inbound agent
  • Easily expandable to more than 200 agents in single or multiple centers

Contact Alston Tascom at 909-548-7300, 866-4TASCOM, or info@alstontascom.com.

Amdev: Amdev offers three predictive dialer solutions. “The AMDial Series II has been designed for call centers to allow for more sophisticated dialing, monitoring, recording, and control of all aspects of the dialing and call process,” said Paul Purifoy, president and CEO. “The Series II is highly productive (for call centers) whose primary objective is to initiate, control and successfully complete telephone calls, with live agents.”

The AMDial Series III is similar to the Series II, but is a stand-alone system for individual agents; multiple Series III units can be networked to allow several agents to work on the same campaign. The series II and III can also be used in the progressive and preview dialing modes.

(The AMDial Series I has been designed for companies, schools, churches, clubs, political campaigns, government agencies and organizations who primarily need to dial lists of telephone numbers and deliver or receive information. The automated attendant and voice mail software are included.)

The five prominent features of the Amdev dialers are:

  •  No-call list
  • Voice mail
  • Fax back
  • Pager notification
  • Answering machine detection

For more information about Amdev dialers, contact Amdev at 209-962-5900.

Amtelco offers a suite of outbound calling applications: the Infinity Auto Callout Gateway, the Abandon Eliminator, and IVR Appointment Reminders. “These applications,” said Kevin Beale, director of R & D software, “include call analysis to determine the dial completion results of each call,” including no answer, busy, excessive rings, telco reorder, answering machine, voicemail, or a person answered. “This is important because it provides the capability to control what happens with each outbound call based on the completion event.”

Auto Callout Gateway: The optional Auto Callout Gateway enables Infinity to automatically initiate outbound calls and execute pre-assigned client behaviors based on the dial completion results. When a person answers a call, Infinity treats the call just like it would treat an incoming call. Voice greetings can be played and client behaviors can be executed. This allows calls to be placed and when someone answers, a greeting can be played and the call can be directed to an agent. Phone numbers and times for each callout can be retrieved from an external database or file. The call results can be written back into the database.

Abandon Eliminator: Amtelco’s optional Abandon Eliminator application provides the ability to call back incoming callers who hung up while in queue. Infinity uses the caller’s ANI to automatically place a call back to the callers to let them know that their calls are important.

IVR Appointment Reminders: Amtelco’s eCreator 2.0 IVR module can automatically place outbound calls based on input from the eCreator appointment taking application or from external appointment taking systems. Outbound calls initiated from IVR execute custom IVR scripts and use text-to-speech to read information, from a database or file, to a caller. This allows the information to be tailored to the individual being called.

Contact Amtelco at 800-356-9148 or info@amtelco.com.

CadCom: CadCom’s newly released Portal is a unified system, provisioned for messaging, along with an auto dialer, predictive dialer, fax server, IVR system, and a simple PBX system. In consideration of outbound calling, Portal can interface with an existing PBX or switch, but it also has the capabilities to provide analog extensions for agents.

“Portal can have an unlimited number of call queues and calling campaigns that can be added and maintained on the fly,” said CadCom’s sales executive, Mike Dutton. “It comes with an on-screen GUI application referred to as the CallQAgent.” It provides real-time queue information and statistics, as well as estimating the number of agents required. Portal is open-ended with a multi-use capability, boasting a complete solution for outbound calling. Its key features include:

  • Unlimited campaigns
  • ODBC compliant
  • Flexible protocols
  •  4 to 512 ports
  • CallQAgent application

For more information call 800-422-3266.

Professional Teledata: ProDial-2000 the combines the scripting capabilities and database management functions of its PI-2000 system with campaign management tools. “This achieves effective outbound telemarketing results while maintaining strict agent control and accountability,” said Dale Schafer, VP of engineering.

Call ordering and management allow users “to maximize campaign resources allowing up to 200 agents per campaign, programmable time-of-day dialing windows, automated recall assignments, and automatic exclusion of restricted or incomplete contact records,” Schafer added.

The main features of the Pro-Dial-2000 system are:

  • Ability to preview contact data prior to dialing
  • Contact history tracking
  • Real time agent progress tracking
  • Automated recalls based on time, day, or date
  • Integrated inbound and outbound campaigns

For more information, contact Karen Black at Professional Teledata at 800-344-9944.


Alston Tascom


Professional Teledata
Product EvolutionAMDial Series 1 & Series 2PortalPro-Dial 2000
Dialing modes Progressive, preview, database,
speed dialing
Predictive, automated
(via database)
Preview, predictive,
auto dialing
Preview, interfaces to some predictive dialers
Operating system Microsoft NT serverWindows 2000 or NTWindows NT/2000/XPWin98 or higher, NT server
Stand-alone or add-on EitherStand-aloneEitherAdd-on (to most standard switches)
Current version 321.06.1
First introduced 19991990July 20021998
Number sold n/a217525
Entry-level cost Varies4 line systems start at $3,990Not provided$500/seat add-on to PI-2000
Hardware Dialer/switch includedIncludedUser provided, analog phones or existing PBXUser provided
Annual support costs Depends upon system sizeNone (maintenance contract extra)Varies per port$25 per seat; max of $250/month
24 x 7 support YesYesYesYes
Installation User installedUser or AMDEV installationUser or CadCom installationUser installed, if adding to PI system.
Training 3 day classroom or on-line trainingOn site using customer’s systemOn-site and telephone/WebTelephone
Top features Access external databasesIntegrated IVRBlended agents


Same interface as for inbound

Expandable to 200+ seats

Do-not-call listVoicemailFax-back


Pager notification

Answering machine detection

Unlimited campaignsODBC compliantFlexible protocols


4 to 512 ports

CallQAgent application

Preview dialingContact historyReal time agent tracking


Automated recalls

Integrated inbound and outbound campaigns

Connections wishes to thank Bill Cortus of Alston Tascom, Inc., Paul Purifoy of Amdev, Kevin Beale of Amtelco, Mike Dutton of CadCom Telesystems, Dale Schafer of Professional Teledata, and Ken Coleman of TimeTrade for their assistance and input in writing this article.

[From Connection MagazineNovember 2002]

Ensure Success with Effective Outbound Script Writing

By Wayne Scaggs

Effective script writing takes time and planning, but it is well worth the effort. Providing your agents with an effective script is the primary factor in a successful call campaign. Here are some ideas on how to write a script that will enable your agents to make the sale, get the appointment, finalize an order, or simply develop a long-term relationship with clients.

Pre-script planning: Creating a script that will lead to a sale requires investing time in a pre-scriptwriting planning session. Start by writing down the purpose of your call campaign. Next, determine the objective of your calls. The plan should include the features, benefits, and competitive advantages you want to use in your selling messages and offers. You must also anticipate the obstacles or objections your agents will encounter and need to handle.

The cardinal rules: There are two critical rules governing script writing, or any sort of sales interaction. First, never say or do anything that will make your prospect or client feel wrong or stupid. Experience has proven that clients are more likely to stay on the phone with you if they feel you are safe to talk with. Second, whoever asks the questions controls the call. Your agents’ success depends on you being able to maintain control.

The opener: Decide what you can say to create a trustworthy feeling in the first 20 seconds of the call. Simplicity, sincerity, and clarity are key issues. Don’t make the prospects try to figure out who you are and what you want.

Consultative selling: Consultative selling is defined as determining the prospect’s need and making suggestions or recommendations that show how your product or service can fill the need. This technique enables the agent to be perceived as a helpful problem-solver and helps build trust.

Relationships: To be effective at consultative selling, the agent must be able to initiate a dialogue with the client. The statement/question technique is an excellent way to initiate dialogue between the agent and prospect. It gives the agent control of the call and is recommended throughout the script to enable the agent to guide the conversation and achieve the objective.

The sequence for the statement/question technique is to make a statement, ask a question, acknowledge the response, and make another statement followed by another question, continuing the cycle. Statements should always carry a selling message, which includes features, benefits, and competitive advantages. Questions should, for the most part, be open-ended. Well-framed questions guide the path of the call, and demonstrate genuine interest in the client’s situation.

Handle objections: Objections are handled by paraphrasing what the prospect said, making a selling statement relevant to the objection, followed by a closing recommendation, or consultative suggestion.

Closing: Closing is the logical conclusion to an effective presentation. The intent is to help the client make a decision. It’s usually done at or near the end of the presentation or whenever the agent feels he/she has met the prospect’s needs. Closes can be written in the form of a simple question or phrased as a contained choice. A good script should have at least two alternate closes, one using the simple closing question and one with a contained choice question. Experienced agents can usually tell which approach is more likely to be successful with a particular prospect.

Completion: The completion or wrap-up of the call should confirm all understanding and agreements reached during the call. This is the place to verify addresses, phone numbers, shipping dates and all other relevant aspects of the transaction. This segment of the call is intended to create certainty so the client will know what to expect and what will happen next. A good wrap-up lends professionalism to the presentation.

Scriptwriting can be a rewarding and revealing experience, but it takes practice and dedication to do it well. Also, remember that scripts are an iterative process. They can and should always be improved upon based on feedback from agents.

Wayne Scaggs is president of Alston Tascom, Inc. He can be reached at 909-548-7300 or 866-483-7266.

[From Connection MagazineNovember 2002]

Telemarketing: Ride the Wave

By Bronson Trebbi

If a long weekend of R & R in the Bahamas could teach you anything, it would be to appreciate the value of “right time, right place.” As a tourist on the tropical island of tourism, you are brutally subjected to the ringing barrage of redundant product offerings. The Bahamian peddlers clearly subscribe to the law of large numbers. With their subtle tenacity cloaked in that warm island charm they call out: “Hey mon! Howsa bouta jet ski ride? An aftanoon booze cruise? You needa some beads?” No thanks, we respond. Not now. But on and on they persist, continuing down the beach addressing the masses, one prospect at a time.

Eventually they stumble upon that giddy honeymoon couple who, after a bit of coaxing, becomes tantalized by the notion of cruising the open sea on his ‘n’ her jet skis. To seal the deal, it is packaged as an island special, a “noooleewed rate” of $50 each. Alas, the right product at the right time. After a few moments to reflect over a cold one, the peddler “rambles” on down the beach and the quest continues.

Simply put, we were witnessing a numbers game at it’s finest. It is the free enterprise system of matching a targeted offer with a targeted group. Go to the grocery store and count how many promotions cloud your vision down each aisle. In that setting, we retrieve the products that we set out for, along with a few spontaneous purchases for which the need had been created, while discarding any coupons that did not fit the target agenda. It’s the same in any purchase environment across the entire free world.

Now for a game of Taboo; Telemarketing! There, it’s out, telemarketing. But it’s not just telemarketing as its own animal, it’s simply another vehicle of marketing. In today’s marketplace, it’s just another game of matching. Consumers bemoan receiving calls on a phone line that they pay every month for. However, consumers merely pay for the right to use the phone line, not ownership of the phone line. This is the same concept as your local radio signals or TV airwaves. It’s the same concept as direct mail and advertisements on billboards. Might I suggest that we can actually deal with telemarketing in the same fashion: view the offer, judge the offer, make a purchase decision, and move on. If not, then I would suggest that we stay consistent in our treatment of all forms of marketing. If while driving, you see an obnoxious “shock jock” billboard that does not appeal to you, then perhaps you might park your car on the side of the road, get out and scream at the top of your lungs until you feel that your stance has been justified.

The point here is that each marketing promotion, regardless of the vehicle, may enter your life at any given time. If it appeals to you, great, you should act on it accordingly. Conversely, if it has no merit, simply discard it. Before we spend too much energy on life’s annoyances, let’s lighten up a bit. We live in a free enterprise system that favors the one willing to do what it takes to reach a target market. There are endless real world scenarios in which telemarketing, a game of matching, makes a positive impact on everyday lives. A recent telemarketing call with a well-presented offer resulted in a music lover capitalizing on an excellent music club promotion of 12 CD’s for only $12.99 with no further obligation to buy. A dozen CD’s is a nice addition to any collection. Right place, right time, right offer, right buyer. It’s marketing, folks, and that very offer appealed to over two million customers last year alone.

Starting to lighten up yet? Well, let’s look at what our banks are up to in this world of matching. Though none of us want to admit it, we’ve all had those occasions when bills start to mount and a little extra cash could help make it through some tough months. Along comes a telemarketing call from a banking institution with a pre-qualified, home-equity loan offer. In this scenario, you might find it worthwhile to submit your criteria and find out which loan options are available to you. That call fit the need of that situation, at that particular time.

Last year our firm assisted a financial client to successfully book $15 million in loans each month through telemarketing leads, saving each individual customer thousands of dollars in heavy interest payments. Talk about win-win! That is not to say that everybody on a call list will fit that need. Absolutely not. Again, it’s simply a numbers game.

Not altogether different than the game conducted on the Bahamian beaches. It is unfortunate that today’s telemarketing representatives are often victimized by the misguided emotional responses of angry consumers. In a sense, it seems that the blame for untimely interruptions has been mindlessly directed toward the actual individuals who are making the calls. Forget about the banks, the department stores, the publications who are conducting these calls. The reality is that when you purchase products or choose to do business with a particular company, you are exposed to further solicitation. The blame lies in the nature of free enterprise which naturally dictates cross-selling and up-selling to customers in good standing who serve as viable candidates. If we can begin to accurately associate with the sources of today’s telemarketing, perhaps we can also relinquish some of the ill feelings we have towards phone representatives as a species. Keep in mind who it is that our industry employs; single moms, elderly people, students, and anybody looking to supplement their income. They are people in your community. More importantly, though, they are human beings. People is their business yet it’s people that poison their enthusiasm on the job. Lighten up a little bit. Listen to the pitch and test their product knowledge. Hey, you never know, you might find that occasional fit.

Beyond the selling environment, we must certainly bring to light the tremendous philanthropic application in our industry. Major phoning campaigns are conducted every year to benefit non-profit organizations, which enables them to help millions of people in need. Last year our firm helped to raise nearly $4 million for a major non-profit organization to boost their laboratory research and community outreach. And yes, all spurred by telemarketing!

Organizations of all kinds are going to great lengths and investing thousands, even millions of dollars toward conducting business via telephone. By the time a product “goes to market” and is implemented in a telemarketing campaign, it has been developed through numerous means of historical data and ongoing market research. The nature of demographics suggests that every offer has an optimal target market and viability within that segment. As each day passes, we all may or may not fit into a given segment. The telemarketer’s role is to sort that out. Perhaps this is a case of hate the message, but don’t hate the messenger. If as consumers, we can simply retain the important mail, and discard the “junk mail,” we have done our role in promoting free enterprise. So to the industry I say, carry on and continue to hone your techniques and present yourself professionally. To all of us as the voice on the other end, let’s lighten up. Who knows mon, you too might one day find yourself perched on a jet ski in the Caribbean.

Bronson Trebbi is vice president of client services for RDI Marketing Services, a Cincinnati based industry leader since 1978. For more information, call RDI at 513-984-5927.

[From Connection Magazine – May 2001]